Who first used the phrase “Web 2.0” in the first place?
The term was popularized by Tim O’Reilly and Dale Dougherty at the O’Reilly Media Web 2.0 Conference in late 2004, though it was first coined by Darcy DiNucci in 1999.
What is the difference between Web 1.0, 2.0, 3.0?
Web 1.0 can be described as the “Limited” phase of the Web. There was only limited interaction between sites and web users via flat data such as links (to find related content) and email. It served as an information portal where users passively receive information without being given the opportunity to post reviews, comments, and feedback.
Web 2.0 was the “Social” phase of the Web with interactive data. Web 2.0 facilitates interaction between web users and sites, so it allows users to interact more freely with each other encouraging participation, collaboration, and information sharing.
Web 3.0 is the “Semantic” phase of Word Wide Web with dynamic applications, interactive services, and “machine-to-machine” interaction. In Web 3.0, computers can interpret information like humans and intelligently generate and distribute useful content tailored to the needs of users.
Elements of Web 2.0
- Wikis: Websites that enable users to contribute, collaborate and edit site content. Wikipedia is one of the oldest and best-known wiki-based sites.
- Nomadicity: or mobile computing, is the trend of users connecting from wherever they may be. That trend is enabled by the proliferation of smartphones, tablets and other mobile devices in conjunction with readily accessible Wi-Fi networks.
- Mash-ups: Web pages or applications that integrate complementary elements from two or more sources.
Web 2.0 controversy
Critics of Web 2.0 maintain that it makes it too easy for the average person to affect online content i.e. Wikipedia, which can impact the credibility, ethics and even legality of web content. The extent of data sharing and gathering also raises concerns about privacy and security. Defenders of Web 2.0 point out that these problems have existed ever since the infancy of the medium and that the alternative — widespread censorship based on ill-defined elitism — would be far worse. The final judgment concerning any web content, say the defenders, should be made by end users alone. Web 2.0 reflects evolution in that direction.
Lamar Smith, SOPA
Protesters against PIPA
The most recent dispute revolving around these issues came about in the form known as the Stop Online Piracy Act or (SOPA) was a United States bill introduced by U.S. Representative Lamar S. Smith (R-TX) to expand the ability of U.S. law enforcement to combat online copyright infringement and online trafficking in counterfeit goods.
The proposed SOPA law would have targeted websites that let you share stuff—Twitter lets you share links, Facebook photos, YouTube videos, Tumblr cute cat pictures, WordPress anything you want. The copyright folks, led by their lobbyists at MPAA and Comcast NBC, wanted to impose obligations on all these companies that forced them to monitor, edit, and filter content, really screwing up or killing many sites that have acted as platforms for the free expression for the average person.
Protest Against SOPA, PIPA
On January 18, 2012, a series of coordinated protests occurred against two proposed laws in the United States Congress—the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA). Protests were based on concerns that the bills, intended to provide more robust responses to copyright infringement (colloquially known as piracy) arising outside the United States, contained measures that could cause great harm to online freedom of speech, websites, and Internet communities. Protesters also argued that there were insufficient safeguards in place to protect sites based upon user-generated content.
The move to a formal protest was initiated when some websites, including Reddit and the English Wikipedia, considered temporarily closing their content and redirecting users to a message opposing the proposed legislation. Others, such as Google, Mozilla, and Flickr, soon featured protests against the acts. Some shut completely, while others kept some or all of their content accessible. According to protest organizer Fight for the Future, over 115,000 websites joined the internet protest.In addition to the online protests, there were simultaneous physical demonstrations in several U.S. cities, including New York City, San Francisco and Seattle, and separately during December 2011 a mass boycott of then–supporter Go Daddy. The protests were reported globally.
By January 20, 2012, the political environment regarding both bills had shifted significantly. The bills were removed from further voting, likely to be revised to take into consideration the issues raised. Opposers noted the bills had been “indefinitely postponed” but cautioned they were “not dead” and “would return”.
An unfortunate possibility.
Forbes: On Net Nutrality
Forbes: Ten Reasons The Net Neutrality Victory Is Bigger Than The SOPA Win
Wikipedia: Protests against SOPA and PIPA